By Hanan Frenk
Nicotine is sort of universally believed to be the most important issue that motivates smoking and impedes cessation. specialists corresponding to the general practitioner common of america and the Royal collage of Physicians within the united kingdom have declared that nicotine is as addictive as heroin and cocaine. This e-book is a critique of the nicotine habit speculation, in keeping with a severe assessment of the learn literature that purports to end up that nicotine is as addictive drug. The overview is predicated on a re-evaluation of greater than seven hundred articles and books in this topic, together with animal and human experimental stories, results of `nicotine alternative therapies', and lots of different proper assets. This assessment concludes that on current facts, there's each cause to reject the commonly accredited conception that nicotine has an important function in cigarette smoking. A serious exam of the factors for drug dependancy demonstrates that none of those standards is met by way of nicotine, and that it really is more likely that nicotine actually limits quite than enables smoking.
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Extra info for A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors)
In fact, he does not specify that these effects must be pleasant, or desirable, or in any way promote the use of the drug. Again, we believe this was not merely an oversight. A clearer statement of the causal relationship between psychoactive effects and addiction would have made it much more difficult to make the case for nicotine addiction, as we shall show in later chapters. In contrast to the authors of the WHO and the DSM IV definitions, the Surgeon General recognized that to justify the diagnosis of addiction or drug-dependence, the drug must have a causal role in maintaining the drug-related habit.
USE OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS WITHOUT DEPENDENCE We showed above that symptoms that are associated with addiction can occur in habits which do not involve drugs. We also showed that the effects of habits and drugs are confounded in the reality of habitual drug use, and cannot be attributed to the drug without independent evidence. To complete this discussion, we discuss the (possibly obvious) point that the involvement of psychoactive drugs in a habit does not in itself constitute addiction. We explicate this point by distinguishing several distinct patterns of habitual drug use.
Again, in the above sentence, “drug use” can be replaced with “gambling,” “bingeing and purging,” or just “bad habit” with no ill effects to its validity. 4. Smoking defined as an addiction 41 We discuss this issue again in Chapter 10, where we compare the relapse rates associated with overeating to those associated with smoking cessation. 4 Urges (Cravings) to Use the Drug May Be Recurrent and Persistent, Especially During Drug Abstinence The term ‘craving’ has been much criticized as a criterion of drug addiction683.
A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors) by Hanan Frenk