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By William James

As those lectures are supposed to be public, and so few, i've got assumed all very specific difficulties to be excluded, and a few subject of common curiosity required. thankfully, our age seems transforming into philosophical back - nonetheless within the ashes stay the wonted fires. Oxford, lengthy the seed-bed, for the english global, of the idealism encouraged by way of Kant and Hegel, has lately develop into the nursery of a truly diverse state of mind. Even non-philosophers have began to take an curiosity in an argument over what's often called pluralism or humanism. It appears a bit as though the traditional english empiricism, goodbye positioned out of favor the following via nobler sounding germanic formulation, should be re-pluming itself and preparing for a higher flight than ever. It looks like foundations have been being sounded and tested afresh.
Individuality outruns all type, but we insist on classifying each we meet

Table of Contents

The forms of Philosophic considering 1; Our age is starting to be philosophical back, three switch of tone because 1860, four Empiricism and Rationalism outlined, 7 the method of Philosophizing: Philosophers opt for a few a part of the realm to interpret the total through, eight They search to make it appear much less unusual, eleven Their temperamental adjustments, 12 Their structures has to be reasoned out, 18 Their tendency to over-technicality, 15 way over this in Germany, 17 the kind of imaginative and prescient is the key in a thinker, 20 Primitive notion, 21 Spiritualism and Materialism : Spiritualism exhibits forms, 23 Theism and Pantheism, 24 Theism makes a duality of guy and God, and leaves guy an interloper, 25 Pantheism identifies guy with God, 29 The modern tendency is in the direction of Pantheism, 30 Legitimacy of our call for to be crucial within the Universe, 33 Pluralism as opposed to Monism: The 'each-form' and the 'all-form' of representing the area

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So far as insight and understanding go. leaves us almost as mu<,h outside of the divine being as dual­ istic theism does. I believe that radical em­ piricism. on the contrary. holding to the each­ form. and making of Q,od only one of the eaches. affords the higher degree of intimacy. The general thesis of these Icctures I said would be a defence of the pluralistic against the mo­ nistic view. Think of the universe as existing II. M O N I S T I C IDEALISM solelv in the each-form. and you will have on the whole.

Our relation, in I. THE TYPES OF THINKING short, is not a strictly social relation. :te relation is be­ lieved to be social, but that is only one of the many differences between religion and theology. This essential dualism of the theistic view has all sorts of collateral consequenc�s. 1\1a n being an outsider and a mere subject to God, not his intimate partner, a character of exter­ nality invades the field. God is not heart of our heart and reason of our reason, but our magistratc, rather; and mechanically to obey his commands, however strange they may be, remains our only moral duty.

Pluralism. l�solllte. exorcises the, great de-realizer of the only life we are at home in. and thus redeems the nature A P L U R A LI S T I C U N I V E R S E of reality from essential foreignness. Every end, reason, motive, object of desire or aver­ sion, ground of sorrow or joy that we feel is in the world of finite multifariousness, for only in that world does anything really hap­ pen, only there do events come to pass. ' I shall rcturn to the subject in my final lecture, and meanwhile, with your permission, I will say no more about this ohjedion.

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A Pluralistic Universe (Classic Reprint) by William James


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