By B. Straumanis, M.E. Jirgensons
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15b. Resistance in order to overcome the internal pressure. Expenditure of work for the increase of the surface. brought to the surface (Fig. 15b). This work is called surface energy, which can be recovered if the surface area is decreased. This is the thermodynamic reason why liquids tend to decrease their surface area wherever possible. This decrease is easily achieved because of the high mobility of the molecules of a liquid. Exposed or pendant drops strive, therefore, for a shape with the lowest surface area, which is the form of a sphere.
Nevertheless, they are not negligible because of the reactions that frequently occur at these interfaces. In the second case, the extension of these interfaces is enormous, although not perceptible. This surface of the dispersed phase and the properties of the interface can be explored only by special methods. Naturally, the outermost layers of a solid substance or of a liquid are in a different condition from those inside. Consequently, the structure of the outside layers will differ slightly from that of the inside.
From a sheet of thin ' Cellophane' a disc is cut and folded into the shape of a dish. By means of a rubber ring the border is then fastened to a funnel as shown in Fig. 3. Into this ' C e l l o p h a n e ' bag a sol is now poured. Filtration is very slow, but after a certain time the liquid penetrates 4 FIG. 3. Formation of a ' Cellophane ' bag. (1) Cellophane' sheet, (2) the edges of the sheet bent upward; (3) the bag hanging on a funnel tube. the membrane, and a drop of liquid is formed on the bottom outside the bag.
A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry by B. Straumanis, M.E. Jirgensons