By Peter W. Hawkes
The 2 chapters that fill this quantity describe instruments for learning the brightness of electron beams and for analysing the houses of mass spectrometers.
First, L.D. Duffy and A.J. Dragt introduce the concept that of eigen-emittance. 3 kinematic invariants are linked to charged-particle beams, in linear shipping mode. those invariants are often called eigen-emittances and a research in their homes makes it attainable to tailor the beam to slot the appliance in query. the idea is predicated at the suggestion of sym-plectic beam delivery, a subject matter on which A.J. Dragt has already contributed to those Advances (Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics, sixty seven, 1986, 65—120, with E. Forest). The authors first recapitulate the fundamental thought sooner than explaining how the emittance will be tailored as required. the rest of the bankruptcy, which shape a quick treatise at the topic, provides a number of applications.
In the second one bankruptcy, I. Spivak-Lavrov describes at size methods of analysing the homes of either static and time-of-flight mass spectrometers and of devising new designs. The optics of those tools is determined out intimately, in an try and make the item self-contained. a lot Russian paintings is pointed out, frequently from journals that aren't to be had in English translation and occasionally, will not be broadly on hand open air their nations of foundation.
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Additional resources for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 193
5. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Understanding eigen-emittances offers an approach to electron beams to tailor the emittance values, provided nonlinear effects on the beam are small. As discussed in section 2, charged particle transport, which is determined by the Hamiltonian, is symplectic. Under linear transport, the symplectic property of the transport matrix leads to three invariants of the motion. 2. When the beam matrix is diagonal, the eigen-emittance values coincide with the emittances of the beam.
147) through (152), there is the relation 1 ¼ βγ À α2 : Finally, define the matrix A by the rule pﬃﬃﬃ 1=pβﬃﬃﬃ p0ﬃﬃﬃ : A¼ α= β β (153) (154) Utilizing the Eigen-Emittance Concept for Bright Electron Beams 27 Since A is 2 Â 2 and evidently has determinant equal to +1, it is symplectic. Correspondingly, the R given by Eq. (143) is symplectic. And, from the resulting definitions, ðZ 0 Þ ¼ AZ 11 AT ¼ diagðE1 , E1 Þ: 11 (155) We will now apply these results. From Eq. (155), 2 0 11 q1 ¼ ðZ 0 Þ11 ¼ E1 , 2 0 11 p1 ¼ ðZ 0 Þ22 ¼ E1 : (157) 2 0 2 0 q1 p1 ¼ E21 : (158) (156) It follows that But there is also Eq.
Physical Review A, 45(4), 2572–2585. 2572. Duffy, L. , et al. (2011). Exploring minimal scenarios to produce transversely bright electron beams using the eigen-emittance concept. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, A654, 52–56. 096. , et al. (2006). Transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange to improve performance of high-gain free-electron lasers. Physical Review Special Topics—Accelerators and Beams, 9, 100702. 100702. -J. (2003). Round-to-flat transformation of angular-momentum-dominated beams.
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 193 by Peter W. Hawkes