By I. G. Craig, N. W. Nash, G. A. Oldfield (auth.), C. P. Ellinas (eds.)
Dr C P Ellinas complex Mechanics & Engineering Ltd significant advances were accomplished in recent times in subsea pipeline layout and deploy. Inspection, upkeep and service have additionally acquired a lot realization. the improvement of marginal fields has introduced with it particular difficulties, that have necessitated novel equipment and suggestions. in the mean time curiosity within the improvement of deepwater fields keeps with the advance of latest know-how. This convention has positioned emphasis in addressing advancements in pipeline expertise less than 4 major headings: pipeline/seabed interplay; versatile pipelines; pipeline layout, fabrication and install; deepwater functions. Advances in North Sea know-how during the last few years were involved more often than not with marginal fields, small diameter pipelines and new fabrics, that are good lined within the first 3 issues. financial improvement of marginal fields calls for processing of oil and gasoline to happen now not on the wellhead yet at current amenities, frequently far away. Hydrocarbons are therefore usually transported at excessive strain and temperature in small diameter pipelines, which have to be safe via trenching. even though, such operational perform has delivered to the fore an issue that previously was once of little challenge specifically, upheaval buckling.
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Extra resources for Advances in Subsea Pipeline Engineering and Technology: Papers presented at Aspect ’90, a conference organized by the Society for Underwater Technology and held in Aberdeen, Scotland, May 30–31, 1990
Ii) Was the produced water temperature high enough to satisfy (i) or were heaters required. (iii) If heaters were necessary could the platform supply the power. Alternatively could temporary mobile generators provide the power source. (iv) The Balmoral FPV is an operating platform with limited available space for large amounts of temporary equipment. Could space be allocated for up to four weeks for this operation, particularly if heaters and generators were required. (v) The specifications for the standard flowline flushing pumps, flexible hoses and ancillary equipment had to be reviewed for compatibility with the hot produced water.
8- 16/21a-6 OUTLET TEMP. V. TIME Flushing Procedure After the flowlines had been laid the flexible flushing hose was connected to the initiation head of the first line and flushing commenced. A time lag of approximately 12-18 hours had been calculated between start up and the pipe reaching the specified temperature. In fact this proved to be a conservative estimate, as evidenced by the discharge temperature versus time curve for the well 16/21a-6 flowline presented in Figure 8. With the flowline up to temperature the survey vessel carried out a detailed side scan and ROV visual survey of the post hot water flush flowline to establish the extent of the lateral buckling.
36 ADVANCES IN SUBSEA PIPELINE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY These soils with shear strengths often between 100 and 200 KPA (eg Fulmar 130-160 KPA) but sometimes exceeding 400 KPA and resembling tough, hard plasticine, could not be trenched with the traditional jet barge and demanded a different approach to burial. A new generation of remotely controlled caterpillar tracked trenching machines and towed ploughs evolved which employed mechanical digging devices and furrow forming blades much more suited to these cohesive soils.
Advances in Subsea Pipeline Engineering and Technology: Papers presented at Aspect ’90, a conference organized by the Society for Underwater Technology and held in Aberdeen, Scotland, May 30–31, 1990 by I. G. Craig, N. W. Nash, G. A. Oldfield (auth.), C. P. Ellinas (eds.)