By Miles McPhee
At a time while the polar areas are present process speedy and remarkable switch, realizing exchanges of momentum, warmth and salt on the ice-ocean interface is important for realistically predicting the longer term country of sea ice. by means of providing a dimension platform principally unaffected through floor waves, drifting sea ice offers a special laboratory for learning elements of geophysical boundary layer flows which are tremendous tough to degree in other places. This booklet attracts on either vast observations and theoretical ideas to increase a concise description of the impression of pressure, rotation, and buoyancy at the turbulence scales that keep an eye on exchanges among the ambience and underlying ocean whilst sea ice is current. a number of attention-grabbing and special observational info units are used to demonstrate various points of ice-ocean interplay starting from the effect of salt on melting within the Greenland Sea marginal ice quarter, to how nonlinearities within the equation of kingdom for seawater impact blending within the Weddell Sea.
The book’s content material, constructed from a chain of lectures, might be applicable extra fabric for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate scholars learning the geophysics of sea ice and planetary boundary layers.
Miles McPhee plays geophysical examine, occupied with polar areas, either from McPhee examine corporation and as associate relevant scientist on the college of Washington utilized Physics Laboratory. He has participated in additional that twenty box courses within the polar oceans of either hemispheres. Dr. McPhee additionally lectures on air-ice-sea interplay on the college heart on Svalbard.
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Extra resources for Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes
The dashed line is the mean of four realizations (1 h) with the shaded box indicating the 95% conﬁdence limits for the 1-h mean where X¯n is the sample mean of n realizations for the covariance, and σn is the average of the bootstrap standard deviations. The dashed line in Fig. 6 is the sample mean of the four covariance heat ﬂux estimates, with the corresponding 95% conﬁdence limits indicated by the shaded box. The above procedure can be applied as well to evaluate conﬁdence intervals for the covariance estimate of turbulent stress τ = u w + i v w .
Records of temperature and salinity at constant levels in the upper ocean (Fig. 6) show well mixed conditions in the upper 18 m of the water column before and after day 78, but during that day there were large excursions indicating upwelling of pycnocline water. 5 kg m−3 larger than at the beginning and end of the day. 0, taken as representative of the ambient conditions surrounding the event. 7 m corresponds to the density at about 30 m in the surrounding undisturbed ocean. This brought water that was usually well below the active turbulence zone close enough to the surface that mixing was intense.
In many respects, pack ice forced by wind to drift over an otherwise nearly quiescent ocean provides a unique laboratory for studying boundary layer ﬂow in a rotating reference frame. The ice itself is a platform that quells all but the longest period surface gravity waves, and allows us to suspend instruments at known depths through the entire extent of the boundary layer, moving at the maximum IOBL velocity. Additionally, at least away from obvious obstacles like deep pressure ridge keels, it presents a relatively uniform, ﬂat surface, usually with comparatively small horizontal gradients in surface stress and upper ocean density.
Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction: Turbulent Ocean Boundary Layer Exchange Processes by Miles McPhee